Installing Tcat Server on Linux
This document describes how to install MuleSoft Tcat Server on the Linux operating system. A basic installation using the Linux installer is described below, followed by advanced installations in text-only mode and with the manual zip file. In addition, this document describes how to start and stop Tcat Server, access the Tcat console, and provides advanced configuration and security steps.
For additional information and to install Tcat Server on other operating systems, please see:
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- Installing Tcat Server on Linux
- Linux Operating Systems Supported
- Required Software
- Additional Required Software for 64-bit Installations
- Installing Tcat Server
- Download Tcat Server for Linux
- Installation with the Linux Installer
- Upgrade Installation
- Advanced Installations
- Headless (Text-Based) Installation
- Installing Tcat Server on Linux with the Manual Installation Zip File
- Adding Tcat Server Capabilities to an Existing Apache Tomcat Installation
- Installing Multiple Tcat Instances on a Single Computer
- Starting and Stopping Tcat Server
- Starting the Tcat Console
- Advanced Options and Security
- Make Contents of Webapps Directory Unwriteable
- Modifying JAVA_OPTS
- Renaming the tcat6 Service on Linux
- Uninstalling Tcat Server
Linux Operating Systems Supported
Tcat Server is supported on the following Linux operating systems:
- RHEL 4, 5 & 5
- CentOS 4 & 5
- Oracle Linux 5
- Fedora 6 through 13
- Ubuntu 9.x and 10.x
- SUSE 10 & 11
- openSUSE 10 & 11
Tcat Server operates within a Java Viurtual Machine (JVM) and requires the Java SE Runtime Environment (JRE). You may download Tcat Server with a bundled version of JRE if you do not already have one installed. However, it is strongly recommended that you install the Java SE Developers Kit (JDK). JDK includes JRE and provides for additional utilities.
JRE/JDK Versions Supported
MuleSoft recommends the latest Oracle/Sun HotSpot JDK or JRE. However, Tcat Server has also been tested with additional versions of JRE and JDK for Linux. The following runtimes are known to work with Tcat Server:
- Oracle/Sun JRE or JDK version 1.6.0_04 or later (also known as "Java 6").
- Oracle/Sun JRE or JDK version 1.5 (all builds) will also work if you are only running the Tcat agent. The Tcat console requires versions 1.6.0_04 or later.
- Oracle/JRockit version 1.6.0_20 or higher JDK (Note: the Tcat console v6.4.1 and lower show zero logs in the logs tab)
- OpenJDK version 1.6.0_18 openjdk-6-jdk "(IcedTea6 1.8) (6b18-1.8-0ubuntu1)" on Ubuntu 10.04 Linux
- OpenJDK version 1.6.0_0-2b12 on Linux
- IBM J9 version 1.6.0 or higher JDK or JRE (Note: this version only works with Tcat Server v6.4.2 and higher)
Note that Tcat Server runs in two or more Java Virtual Machines:
- The Tcat console runs in Tomcat 6.0, and requires JDK or JRE 1.6.0_04 or higher.
- The Tcat agents can run in Tomcat 5.5 or higher, including Tomcat 7, and require JDK or JRE 1.5.0 or higher
The following Java Runtimes have also been tested but are known to not work, and are unsupported:
- Oracle JDK or JRE version 7, releases earlier than update 2 (due to HotSpot loop optimization bugs)
- Oracle/Sun JDK or JRE versions 1.6.0_03 or lower (due to JAXB, any Oracle/Sun Hotspot JVM lower than 1.6.0_04 won't work with the Tcat console)
- IBM J9 1.5.0 JDK and JRE (due to lack of support for self-signed HTTPS client certificates)
- OpenJDK versions lower than 1.6.0_0-2b12 on Linux (prone to JVM crashes and other JVM failures)
- GNU GCJ or GIJ, all versions
Older Linux distribution versions tend to contain incompatible Java runtimes that are known not to run with Tcat Server. Tcat Server is incompatible with these Java runtimes, including all versions of GCJ, any version of IcedTea lower than version 6, and OpenJDK versions lower than version 126.96.36.199-b17, though version 1.6.0_0-2b12 was tested to work.
Setting the JAVA_HOME environment variable
If you wish to use your own installed JRE or JDK and not the bundled version included with Tcat Server, an environment variable must be set. Tcat Server first looks for an installed JDK with the JAVA_HOME environment variable. If it doesn't find a JDK, it looks for a JRE with the JRE_HOME environment variable. If it finds neither, it defaults to using its own bundled JRE.
Additional Required Software for 64-bit Installations
Before installing the 64-bit version of Tcat Server, the 32-bit compatibility libraries and all of their dependencies must be installed. The following sections provide details on installing 32-bit compatibility libraries for various Linux distributions. Once these libraries are installed, you may proceed with installing Tcat Server via the installer executable.
Red Hat Enterprise Linux / CentOS / Fedora
For most versions of 64-bit Red Hat Enterprise Linux (RHEL), CentOS, and Fedora, 32-bit compatibility libraries can be installed via the software installation tool, yum:
Or, for some newer versions of these distributions:
For 64-bit Ubuntu installations, 32-bit compatibility libraries can be installed via the command-line tool, apt-get:
For 64-bit installation of OpenSUSE 11, 32-bit versions of GTK2 and all of its dependencies must be installed. You may install them using the yast tool:
Installing Tcat Server
You will need to know the default credentials to access the Tcat Server dashboard once installation is complete. Both the username and password default to "admin" as detailed below.
Download Tcat Server for Linux
Download the latest Tcat Server release by going to the Tcat Overview Page http://www.mulesoft.com/tcat-server-enterprise-tomcat-application-server and clicking on the Download Now button. 32-bit and 64-bit versions are available for download.
Installation with the Linux Installer
Follow these steps to install Tcat Server with the Linux installer. All defaults may be chosen for an initial installation. However, custom ports, installation directory and a service instance name can be customized by changing the defaults as shown below. Later, when installing additional Tcat Server instance on one or more remote computers, the Tcat console need not be installed.
- Download Tcat Server from the link above.
- Run the installer. The welcome screen will open in a few moments, click Next and accept the license agreement.
- Choose a Standard Installation to install both Tcat Server and the Tcat console. Choose Custom Installation if you wish to only install Tcat Server on a remote computer that will be administered by your primary installation. The Custom Installation option will also allow you to install Apache Tomcat documentation.
- After choosing the directory for installation, the next screen allows you to configure ports. Ports can also be later changed in the
- The next screen allows you to define a unique service name for this instance of Tcat Server.
- Choose whether you would like symlinks created, and if so, the directory to create them in. The directory you specify will reside within the installation directory.
- The installation will then start and take several minutes to complete.
- Start Tcat Server by opening a terminal window and navigating to the
bindirectory where Tcat Server was installed. Then enter:
service tcat6 start(or, if that doesn't work, enter:
- Open a web browser and navigate to: http://localhost:8080/console
- Log in with "admin" for both the username and password.
- The Tcat dashboard will launch in your web browser.
Your next steps after launching the Tcat dashboard include registering a server in the console, and then adding a new web application to the server instance. See the Working with Servers guide for additional steps in these procedures.
If you are upgrading from a previous release of Tcat Server, see Upgrading to Tcat Server 6 R4 and follow the upgrade instructions provided in this document.
This section demonstrates how to install Tcat Server in headless and unattended modes with custom options, and installations with the manual zip file.
Headless (Text-Based) Installation
The "headless" (text-only) mode of installation allows users to customize the installation in both an attended (interactive) and unattended (non-interactive) mode. In the interactive mode, users answer configuration questions in the shell, and then the installer begins an unattended installation. In the non-interactive mode, users can automate multiple installs with an external configuration file.
Attended (Interactive) Headless Installation
To begin the headless installation, open a terminal window and navigate to the directory where Tcat Server was downloaded, then type the following at the prompt (using your downloaded filename as it may differ from the following):
sh tcat-installer-6.4.4-linux-32bit.sh -c
The installer's interaction in the terminal window will look similar to this:
Unattended (Non-Interactive) Headless Installation
Several options are available for an unattended headless installation:
1. Default Installation
If you wish to install Tcat Server with all default options, use the -q argument instead of -c. This will install both Tcat Server and the Tcat console in its default location of
/opt/TcatServer6 for root users (for Debian installations, the default location is
/usr/local/TcatServer6). It will also use all default port numbers, which can later be changed in the
The command for a default installation is (where your actual filename may differ):
sh tcat-installer-6.4.4-linux-32bit.sh -q
It is recommended that Tcat Server be installed by a root user. It can, however, also be installed by a non-root user. Non-root users usually do not have permission to install in the /opt directory, and in this case, Tcat server will install in the current user's home directory. In addition, for non-root users, the installer will not have permission to install an init script into
An options file can be produced and referenced during the headless installation. If the installer has already been run, then a default option file
response.varfilealready exists in the
.install4jdirectory within your installation directory. It is best to copy and modify this file and use it for future installations. Otherwise, the following code can be copied into a new text file, and customized for your use if necessary. It can then be used as the installation option file when installing Tcat Server version 6.4.4. The contents of this varfile is in the same format as a simple Java properties file:
After producing the above options file, and naming it
response.varfile, execute the following command in the terminal window to start installation (using your filename which may differ from the following):
To also display debugging information about the installation, use the following command to start installation:
Installing Tcat Server on Linux with the Manual Installation Zip File
The following steps detail how to install Tcat Server on a Linux distribution with the Manual Installation Zip file. This file can be downloaded by going to the Tcat Overview Page http://www.mulesoft.com/tcat-server-enterprise-tomcat-application-server and clicking on the Download Now button.
First unzip the Tcat Server Manual Installation file:
- sudo -s
- cd /opt
- unzip TcatServer-6.4.4.zip
Then create the TCAT_HOME environment variable:
If you wish to install Tcat Server into a different file system location, it is recommended that you you use the automated installer. Try installing it into /opt/TcatServer6 first.
If the 'tomcat' user already exists, do this instead:
Either way, continue:
On Red Hat, CentOS, and Fedora Linux distributions, use the chkconfig command so that Tcat Server starts upon a reboot:
On other Linux distributions, such as Debian and Ubuntu, you may need to use this command instead:
Next, edit your Tcat Server environment file to set the value of JAVA_HOME to point to your Java JDK:
If you do not have a JDK, but instead a JRE, set the value of JRE_HOME instead of JAVA_HOME. Make sure you set only one of these environment variables, not both.
Then start Tcat Server in one of the following ways:
Adding Tcat Server Capabilities to an Existing Apache Tomcat Installation
Tcat Server capabilities can be added to an existing Apache Tomcat installation. All Tomcat 5.5.x and higher releases, and all Tomcat 6.0.x and 7.0.x releases are supported. Please reference Add Tcat Server Capabilities to an Existing Tomcat Install for installation instructions.
Installing Multiple Tcat Instances on a Single Computer
Multiple instances of Tcat Server can be run on a single machine. One instance (or more) of the Tcat console will allow users to manage all the additional Tcat Server instances, each running in their own Java Virtual Machine (JVM). For more information, see Installing Multiple Tcat Instances on a Single Machine.
Starting and Stopping Tcat Server
If you want to use the standard Tomcat
Commands for starting, stopping, restarting and obtaining the server's status and process ID take the following format:
- If you installed as a root-user via the installer, you should be able to use the init script located in the
bindirectory where Tcat was installed:
- If the "service" command is not available or is not working properly, try running:
- If the installation user did not have permission to write tcat6 into /etc/init.d, you should be able to execute:
As a next step, you may wish to start the Tcat console as detailed in the following section.
Starting the Tcat Console
The Tcat console is an administration console for managing and monitoring Tomcat instances. To run the Tcat console on a local installation, enter http://localhost:8080/console in your web browser. If the server is remote or you changed the default port, replace
localhost:8080 with the correct server name and port where the console is deployed.
You can now select and register one or more of the unregistered servers, adding them to server groups as needed. For more details, see Working with Servers.
Advanced Options and Security
This section details a few important advanced options. For more information about configuring Tcat Server, please see the Administration Guide.
Make Contents of Webapps Directory Unwriteable
By default, the Tcat console enables a user to edit files on any Tcat Server instance registered to it. For additional security, you may wish to make the Webapps directory unwriteable.
This property is set in the
spring-services.xml file located in the
webapps/agent/WEB-INF/ directory. Below is the relevant snippet:
To disable this ability, take the following steps:
- Uncomment last element shown in the above snipper, replacing this with this
- Save the file
- Restart Tcat Server instance
You may wish to modify the JAVA_OPTS environment variable for several reasons:
- To enable JMX so that you obtain more detailed information about connectors and server status, e.g.,
- To increase memory settings because you are installing all the components offered in the installer, as an example:
-Xmx512M -XX:PermSize=64M -XX:MaxPermSize=128M
- To modify the secure port, as an example:
JAVA_OPTS can be modified after installing Tcat Server using the Tcat console. This can be done in two ways:
- Manually setting the options on each server by modifying the server's environment variables
- Or by modifying the options in the server profile that you use across multiple Tcat Server instances. This requires administration privileges.
Renaming the tcat6 Service on Linux
You may wish to rename your Tcat Server init script, either because you're installing more than one copy of Tcat Server in a single operating system and you need to prevent an init script naming conflict, or because you want to invoke the init script using a different name. Tcat Server supports renaming the service.
First, make sure you shut down your Tcat/Tomcat instance whose service you want to rename:
Or, if you're currently using a stock Tomcat package init script:
Switch to a root shell:
Set the new service name as an environment variable, along with the absolute path to the directory to the Tcat Server installation you're changing the service name for:
Next, rename the init script symlinks to the new service name (copy and paste these commands – don't type them in):
If any of the above "tcat6" files do not exist, it is because you installed the Tcat agent webapp only, which is okay. You must pair the agent with the console before the agent will unpack its service scripts.
And, in your Tcat/Tomcat instance's environment file, which is used for the JVM's startup environment, change the service name setting (copy and paste this command – don't type it in):
Exit from the root shell.
If you're changing the service in order to install two or more Tcat Server installations in a single operating system, you should also ensure that the port numbers in Tomcat's
<tomcatHome>/conf/server.xml do not conflict, and also that the Tcat agent secure port number of each Tcat Server instance is unique (copy and paste these commands – don't type them in):
Then inspect the agent.properties file to ensure the setting is correct.
The default agent secure port is 51443.
You're now finished renaming the service. You can now start, stop, or restart Tcat Server using the service name you chose:
Uninstalling Tcat Server
The following options will uninstall Tcat Server:
- For a Tcat Server installation with the Linux installer, choose the uninstall shell script in the Tcat Server installation directory.
- If Tcat Server and Tomcat were manually installed in the same directory, and you want to delete both programs, simply delete the entire folder.
- If Tcat Server was manually installed on an existing Tomcat installation, delete the console, agent webapps and their folders from the webapps directory.